Iron Deficiency - Anemia in PPT PDF

Presentation Notes on Iron Deficiency, Kinetics of Iron Absorption & How to Diagnose Iron Deficiency in Human Body in word/ .doc Format

Iron Regulation

            If the iron store of the body (ferritin)is nil or low, in presence of severe anemia/pregnancy, the fraction of food iron absorbed rises from 5% to 20% or even 30%. Conversely, in iron overload states, the iron absorption from intestine becomes nearly nil (despite normal iron intake). This is the major mechanism to safeguard that the absorption of iron can be varied according to the need of the body and the mechanism is called "mucosal block" mechanism. Another mechanism is from transferrin, delivery of iron is increased to the cells when the need of the body is great (iron deficiency states) and vice versa.
Iron absorption occurs from duodenum and upper part of jejunum.


            Iron is carried by transferrin of blood plasma. Normally,only about 30% of transferrin is saturated by iron, that is, only 30% of the TISC (total iron binding capacity, fig. 2.2.4) of the blood is saturated. When TIBC saturation becomes very low (say < 20%), there is iron deficiency anemia or when TIBC saturation becomes> 45% iron overload state is reached. Clinically, iron overload state is dangerous and can result when excessive iron therapy by IV (intravenous) route is employed. An important cause of iron overload is too frequent blood transfusion.

Kinetics of iron absorption

            Iron is absorbed from the duodenum and upper part of the jejunum→ enters blood → from the blood it goes to the different cells which produce (i) Hb (erythroblasts), (ii) myo­globin, Mgb (muscle cells), (Hi) enzymes like peroxidase/ catalase etc (liver cells etc).
From dead RBCs, Hb is relased  → iron is extracted from this Hb → his iron is stored as ferritin, usually in the macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system, RES → from this ferritin iron again comes back to the blood → goes to form Hb ; thus iron is recycled.

How to diagnose Iron deficiency?

(i) In iron deficiency state there will be 'iron deficiency anemia' characterized by microcytic hypochromic RBCs which can be diagnosed by ordinary blood film staining and examining under ordinary microscope.

(ii) A superior method is to estimate bone marrow iron content by aspira­ting the RBM.

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