What is Blood Plasma – Definition & Composition

Blood Plasma and Serum Components Medical Biology Essay for Students & Kids


Plasma is a straw coloured clear liquid. It contains 92% of water and 8 to 9% of solids. The solids are organic and the inorganic substances.

Organic Substances of the Plasma

The following are the organic substances of the plasma.
  • Proteins: The proteins present in the plasma are albumin, globulin and fibrinogen. These are specifically known as plasma proteins.
  • Carbohydrates: The carbohydrate is present in plasma mainly in the form of glucose.
  • Fats: The lipid substances present in plasma are the neutral fats, phospholipids and cholesterol,
  • Aminoacids: Plasma contains both essential and nonessential amino acids.
  • Nonprotein nitrogenous substances: The plasma also contains some nonprotein nitrogenous substances like ammonia, creatine, creatinine, xanthine, hypoxanthine, urea and uric acid.
  • Internal secretions: The plasma contains many hor­mones.
  • Enzymes: The enzymes like amylase, carbonic anhydrase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, lipase, esterase, protease and transaminase are present in plasma.
  • Antibodies: The plasma contains many antibodies, which are called immunoglobulins.

Inorganic Substances of the Plasma

Following are the inorganic substances present in plasma.
  1. Sodium
  2. Calcium
  3. Potassium
  4. Magnesium
  5. Chloride           
  6. Iodide               
  7. Iron
  8. Phosphates                                         
  9. Copper
Gases Present in Plasma
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are also present in plasma. The Table gives the normal values of some impor­tant substances in blood.

Blood level of some important substances

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