Chlorine as Mineral – Rich Food Sources, Functions, Deficiency & Daily Requirements

Health Care Guide on Chlorine (Cl) functions in Human Body, Absorption, Excretion, Regulation facts & disease – Hyperchloraemia & Hypochloremia in word/ .doc / ppt / .pdf format


Chlorine is the principle extracellular anion. Its plasma concentration tends to follow that of sodium.


  • Chlorine is present in table salt.
  • Many vegetables and meats contain chloride
  • Water is also “chlorinated”.

Daily requirements:

  • Adults : 2-5 gms
  • Children : 0.5 – 2 gms .Serum level 98-106mmol/L


  • Occurs in small intestines.
  • High renal threshold.


  • Through sweat, faeces and urine.


  • Chloride levels in plasma are directly proportional to sodium ions, whereas they are inversely related to the bicarbonate concentrations.


  • Important in gastric juice as part of the gastric hydrochloride.
  • Involved in the chloride shift. It is involved in the maintenance of intracellular homeostasis in the RBCs.

Clinical manifestations:


  • It can be caused by chloride gain and vomiting.
  • It may be associated with hypematraemia, metabolic alkalosis and repiratory acidosis.


  • Metabolic alkalosis which is saline responsive occurs. It occurs during vomiting, diuretic therapy, injection of alkali and diarrhoea.
  • Metabolic alkalosis can also be saline nonresponsive. It occurs during mineralocorticoid excess and severe K+ deficiency.

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