HIV Life Cycle - How does HIV Virus Survive in humans

Health Care Presentation Article Review on how does HIV / AIDs live in the environment surface / outside human body with life cycles steps & simple diagram in ppt / word/ doc / pdf format

HIV LIFE CYCLE:/ How does HIV live?

HIV does not survive well outside the human body or in the outside the environment. Therefore, HIV virus does last very long. Through AIDS patient's blood, it contains approximately 10,000 viruses per millimeter. However, laboratory studies have proved that HIV can only survive within one or two seconds. The studies have also shown that drying HIV reduces the amount of virus by nearly 95 percent within several cases.

The external protein of HIV (gp120) binds to the CD4 protein, which is found on the surface of the lymphocytes T4 and macrophages. This fact allows HIV to infect and destroy T4 lymphocytes.

The first step in HIV life cycle is the attachment of viral particles to the cell. The protein gp120 interacts with CD4 and then with a second protein of the cell surface (the chemokine receptor CXCR4 or CCR5) allowing the fusion of viral and cellular membranes mediated by gp41. 

After membrane fusion, the viral core enters the cell and the viral RNA is released. The viral genome (RNA) is then retrotranscribed (converted to DNA) by the viral enzyme RT and integrated into the cellular DNA by the viral enzyme Integrase. Once the viral genome is integrated, the cell cannot identify it as an external DNA, and the cellular machinery produces viral proteins. These proteins will be assembled to form new HIV particles, which will be released by the cells and maturated by the viral protease. These newly formed particles are now ready to infect new cells. 

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