Genetic Susceptibility to Type 1 Diabetes

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Genetic Susceptibility:

Type 1diabetes has a complex pattern of genetic associations, and putative susceptibility genes have been mapped to at least 20 loci. Many of these associations are with chromosomal regions, and the particular genes involved are not known yet. Of the multiple loci that are associated with the disease by far the most important is the class II MHC (HLA) locus. According to some estimates, the MHC contributes about half the genetic susceptibility, and all the other genes combined make up the other half.
   
The MHC Locus : The principal susceptibility locus for type 1 diabetes resides in the region that encodes the class II molecules of the MHC on chromosome 6p21 (HLA-D). Ninety percent to 95% of Caucasians with type 1 diabetes have HLADR3, DR4, or both, in contrast to about 40% of normal subjects ; and 40% to 50% of patients are DR3 / DR4 heterozygotes, in contrast to 5% of normal subjects.

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