Factors Affecting Blood Pressure

Presentation Notes / Heath Care Guide on Factors ( Age, During exercise, after meal, Emotions, lab Control etc)  Influencing BP Measurement, Pulse Rate & Heart Rate Readings in Men, women & Children in ppt / word / doc Format Free Download 

Various Conditions affecting BP:

A.  Physiological

1.  Age: The BP is affected by age. In the young people BP is usual low and reaches the adult value of 120/80. Thereafter, both the SBP and DBP rise gradually till 40 years. From 40 years onwards the rise is steep, particularly with SBP. At 70 years of age, the BP is normally about 160/90 mm of Hg and 80 it is about 180/95 mm of Hg.

2.  Sex: Before the onset of menopause women have little lower BP than their male counterparts of same age group. After menopause, women have little higher BP than males of similar age groups.

3.  Meals:  After meals the BP is little higher.

4. Emotion: Rage and panic raise the BP. However, in ex­ceptional panic, there may be fainting attacks.

5. Exposure to cold: Causes rise in BP due to hypo- thalamic stimulation. There is cutaneous vasoconstriction leading to increased resistance to the blood flow and eleva­tion of BP (cutaneous vasoconstriction causes conservation of heat within the body).
Conversely rise of room air temperature causes vasodilatation of the skin, [so that body heat is lost via the skin to the exterior,] thus lowering the peripheral resistance and fall of BP.

6. Excercise: Uses a rise of SBP and fall of DBP. The mean BP remains practically unal­tered or even it may show a fall. Cause is large increase of the cardiac output plus a sharp fall of peripheral resis­tance due to arteriolar dilatation in the working muscles. Recall, rise of cardiac output causes rise of SBP whereas fall of peripheral resistance leads to fall of DBP.

7. Sleep: Causes a fall of BP. However, sleep associated with nightmare dreams may cause rise of BP.

B. Pathological:

1.     Chronic elevation of BP is called chronic hyperten­sion. In great majority of cases the etiology cannot be found out and is called essential hypertension. In a small percent­ age of cases, the rise of BP is due to such causes like,,
(i) Renal artery stenosis,
(ii) Pheochromocytoma and
(iii) pre-clamptic toxemia etc. Such cases are called secondary Hypertension

2.     Blood pressure falls, sometimes alarmingly, in cardio­ vascular shock and spinal shock.

C. Drug Induced:

Many drugs produce alteration of BP. Thus, sympathetic stimulants like adrenalin, noradrenalin and phenylepinephrine raise BP; while relaxants of vascular smooth muscle like Hydralazine reduce the BP. Diuretics like Frusemide reduce BP by decreasing blood volume. Drugs opposing the sympathetic system like Clonidine, Methyl DOPA are popular hypotensive agents.

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