HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) defination, origin, transmitted

                                                                         HIV

What is HIV?
HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It is the virus that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. Unlike some other viruses, the human body cannot get rid of HIV. That means that once you have HIV, you have it for life.
No safe and effective cure currently exists, but scientists are working hard to find one, and remain hopeful. Meanwhile, with proper medical care, HIV can be controlled. Treatment for HIV is often called antiretroviral therapy or ART. It can dramatically prolong the lives of many people infected with HIV and lower their chance of infecting others. Before the introduction of ART in the mid-1990s, people with HIV could progress to AIDS in just a few years. Today, someone diagnosed with HIV and treated before the disease is far advanced can have a nearly normal life expectancy.
HIV affects specific cells of the immune system, called CD4 cells, or T cells. Over time, HIV can destroy so many of these cells that the body can’t fight off infections and disease. When this happens, HIV infection leads to AIDS.


 Where HIV did came from?
Scientists identified a type of chimpanzee in West Africa as the source of HIV infection in humans. They believe that the chimpanzee version of the immunodeficiency virus (called simian immunodeficiency virus, or SIV) most likely was transmitted to humans and mutated into HIV when humans hunted these chimpanzees for meat and came into contact with their infected blood.
Studies show that HIV may have jumped from apes to humans as far back as the late 1800s. Over decades, the virus slowly spread across Africa and later into other parts of the world. We know that the virus has existed in the United States since at least the mid- to late 1970s.

WHAT ARE THE STAGES OF HIV?
HIV disease has a well-documented progression. Untreated, HIV is almost universally fatal because it eventually overwhelms the immune system—resulting in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV treatment helps people at all stages of the disease, and treatment can slow or prevent progression from one stage to the next.
A person can transmit HIV to others during any of these stages:
Acute infection: Within 2 to 4 weeks after infection with HIV, you may feel sick with flu-like symptoms. This is called acute retroviral syndrome (ARS) or primary HIV infection, and it’s the body’s natural response to the HIV infection. (Not everyone develops ARS, however—and some people may have no symptoms.)
During this period of infection, large amounts of HIV are being produced in your body. The virus uses important immune system cells called CD4 cells to make copies of itself and destroys these cells in the process. Because of this, the CD4 count can fall quickly.
Your ability to spread HIV is highest during this stage because the amount of virus in the blood is very high.
Eventually, your immune response will begin to bring the amount of virus in your body back down to a stable level. At this point, your CD4 count will then begin to increase, but it may not return to pre-infection levels.

Clinical latency (inactivity or dormancy): This period is sometimes called asymptomatic HIV infection or chronic HIV infection. During this phase, HIV is still active, but reproduces at very low levels. You may not have any symptoms or get sick during this time. People who are on antiretroviral therapy (ART) may live with clinical latency for several decades. For people who are not on ART, this period can last up to a decade, but some may progress through this phase faster.

 It is important to remember that you are still able to transmit HIV to others during this phase even if you are treated with ART, although ART greatly reduces the risk. Toward the middle and end of this period, your viral load begins to rise and your CD4 cell count begins to drop. As this happens, you may begin to have symptoms of HIV infection as your immune system becomes too weak to protect you.

AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome): This is the stage of infection that occurs when your immune system is badly damaged and you become vulnerable to infections and infection-related cancers called opportunistic illnesses. When the number of your CD4 cells falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood (200 cells/mm3), you are considered to have progressed to AIDS. (Normal CD4 counts are between 500 and 1,600 cells/mm3.)

You can also be diagnosed with AIDS if you develop one or more opportunistic illnesses, regardless of your CD4 count. Without treatment, people who are diagnosed with AIDS typically survive about 3 years. Once someone has a dangerous opportunistic illness, life expectancy without treatment falls to about 1 year. People with AIDS need medical treatment to prevent death.

HOW IT IS TRANSMITTED:
Only certain fluids—blood, semen (cum), pre-seminal fluid (pre-cum), rectal fluids, vaginal fluids, and breast milk—from an HIV-infected person can transmit HIV. These fluids must come in contact with a mucous membrane or damaged tissue or be directly injected into the bloodstream (from a needle or syringe) for transmission to possibly occur. Mucous membranes can be found inside the rectum, the vagina, the opening of the penis, and the mouth.


In the United States, HIV is spread mainly by
Having unprotected sex (sex without a condom) with someone who has HIV.
Anal sex is the highest-risk sexual behavior. Receptive anal sex (bottoming) is riskier than insertive anal sex (topping).
Vaginal sex is the second highest-risk sexual behavior.
Having multiple sex partners or having other sexually transmitted infections can increase the risk of infection through sex.
Sharing needles, syringes, rinse water, or other equipment (works) used to prepare injection drugs with someone who has HIV.
Less commonly, HIV may be spread by
Being born to an infected mother. HIV can be passed from mother to child during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding.
Being stuck with an HIV-contaminated needle or other sharp object. This is a risk mainly for health care workers.
Receiving blood transfusions, blood products, or organ/tissue transplants that are contaminated with HIV. This risk is extremely small because of rigorous testing of the US blood supply and donated organs and tissues.

Eating food that has been pre-chewed by an HIV-infected person. The contamination occurs when infected blood from a caregiver’s mouth mixes with food while chewing, and is very rare.

Being bitten by a person with HIV. Each of the very small number of documented cases has involved severe trauma with extensive tissue damage and the presence of blood. There is no risk of transmission if the skin is not broken.
Oral sex—using the mouth to stimulate the penis, vagina, or anus (fellatio, cunnilingus, and rimming). Giving fellatio (mouth to penis oral sex) and having the person ejaculate (cum) in your mouth is riskier than other types of oral sex.
Contact between broken skin, wounds, or mucous membranes and HIV-infected blood or blood-contaminated body fluids. These reports have also been extremely rare.
Deep, open-mouth kissing if the person with HIV has sores or bleeding gums and blood is exchanged. HIV is not spread through saliva. Transmission through kissing alone is extremely rare.

Can HIV survive outside Human body?
HIV does not survive long outside the human body (such as on surfaces), and it cannot reproduce. It is not spread by
Air or water.
Insects, including mosquitoes or ticks.
Saliva, tears, or sweat. There is no documented case of HIV being transmitted by spitting.
Casual contact like shaking hands or sharing dishes.
Closed-mouth or “social” kissing
Toilet seats


CAN I GET THROUGH ANAL SEX?
Yes. In fact, having anal sex without using a condom is the riskiest type of sex for getting or spreading HIV. During anal sex, it’s possible for either partner—the insertive (top) or the receptive (bottom)—to get HIV.
HIV can be found in the blood, semen (cum), preseminal fluid (pre-cum), or rectal fluid of a person infected with the virus. The bottom is at greater risk of getting HIV because the lining of the rectum is thin and may allow HIV to enter the body during anal sex, but the top is also at risk because HIV can enter through the opening of the penis or through small cuts, abrasions, or open sores on the penis






CAN I GET THROUGH VAGINAL SEX?
Yes, vaginal sex without a condom is a high-risk behavior for HIV infection. It is possible for either partner to become infected this way. HIV can be found in the blood, semen (cum), pre-seminal fluid (pre-cum), or vaginal fluid of a person infected with the virus.
During vaginal sex, HIV is passed from men to women much more easily than from women to men. In women, HIV can be directly absorbed through the mucous membranes that line the vagina and cervix. The lining of the vagina can also sometimes tear and possibly allow HIV to enter the body.
In men, HIV can enter the body through the urethra (the opening at the tip of the penis) or through small cuts or open sores on the penis. Men who are not circumcised are at greater risk of HIV infection through vaginal sex than are circumcised men.
Risk for HIV infection increases if you or a partner also has a sexually transmitted infection (STI). See also Is there a connection between HIV and other sexually transmitted infections?
Many barrier methods that women use to prevent pregnancy (e.g., diaphragm, cervical cap) do not protect them against HIV or other STIs because they still allow infected semen (cum) to come in contact with the lining of the vagina.
Oral or hormonal contraceptives (e.g., birth control pills) do not protect women against HIV or other STIs.

CAN I GET THROUGH ORAL SEX?
·        Oral sex involves using the mouth to stimulate the penis, vagina or anus (i.e.,fellatio, cunnilingus, and rimming). It
is possible for either partner to become infected with HIV through performing or receiving oral sex, though the risk is much less than for anal and vaginal sex.
The highest-risk oral sex activity is giving oral sex to a man, if he ejaculates (cums) in your mouth. There is little to no risk of getting HIV from other types of oral sex. Several factors may increase the risk of HIV transmission through oral sexual contact, including mouth ulcers, bleeding gums, genital sores, and the presence of other sexually transmitted infections.
Although rimming carries little to no risk of transmitting HIV, it does come with a high risk of transmitting hepatitis A and B, parasites, and other bacteria to the partner who is doing the rimming

·        The risk of HIV transmission through oral sex is much less than that from anal or vaginal sex—but it is not zero.
·        Performing oral sex on an HIV-infected man, with ejaculation, is the riskiest oral sex activity.
·        Factors that may increase the risk of HIV transmission through oral sex are oral ulcers, bleeding gums, genital sores, and the presence of other sexually transmitted infections.
Oral sex involves giving or receiving oral stimulation (i.e., sucking or licking) to the penis (fellatio), the vagina (cunnilingus), or the anus (anilingus). HIV can be transmitted during any of these activities, but the risk is much less than that from anal or vaginal sex. Receiving fellatio, giving or receiving cunnilingus, and giving or receiving anilingus carry little to no risk. The highest oral sex risk is to individuals performing fellatio on an HIV-infected man, with ejaculation.1,2

Risk of HIV

Even though oral sex carries a lower risk of HIV transmission than other sexual activities, the risk is not zero. It’s hard to measure the exact risk because most people who practice oral sex also practice other forms of sex during the same encounter. When transmission occurs, it may be the result of oral sex or other, riskier sexual activities, such as anal or vaginal sex.
If the person receiving oral sex has HIV, their blood, semen, pre-seminal fluid, or vaginal fluid may contain the virus. If the person performing oral sex has HIV, blood from their mouth may enter the body of the person receiving oral sex through the lining of the urethra (the opening at the tip of the penis), vagina, cervix, or anus, or through cuts and sores.
Several factors may increase the risk of HIV transmission through oral sex, including oral ulcers, bleeding gums, genital sores, and the presence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Risk of Other Infections

In addition to HIV, other organisms can be transmitted through oral sex with an infected partner, leading to herpes, syphilis, gonorrhea, genital warts (human papillomavirus, or HPV), intestinal parasites (amebiasis), or hepatitis A or B infection.

Reducing the Risk

Barrier methods can help lower the risk of getting HIV and other STIs from oral sex. A latex or plastic condom may be used on the penis, and a cut-open condom or a dental dam can be used between the mouth and the vagina or anus.

IS THERE ANY CONNECTION BETWEEN HIV AND STD DISEASE?

Yes. Having a sexually transmitted infection (STI) can increase the risk of getting or spreading HIV. If you are HIV-negative but have an STI, you are at least 2 to 5 times as likely to get HIV if you have unprotected sex with someone who has HIV. There are two ways that having an STI can increase the likelihood of getting HIV. If the STI causes irritation of the skin (e.g., from syphilis, herpes, or human papillomavirus), breaks or sores may make it easier for HIV to enter the body during sexual contact. Even STIs that cause no breaks or open sores (e.g., chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis) can increase your risk by causing inflammation that increases the number of cells that can serve as targets for HIV.
If you are HIV-positive and also infected with another STI, you are 3 to 5 times as likely as other HIV-infected people to spread HIV through sexual contact. This appears to happen because there is an increased concentration of HIV in the semen and genital fluids of HIV-positive people who also are infected with another STI.

BY INJECTING DRUG?
Yes. At the start of every injection, blood gets into the needle and syringe, and some remains there after use. HIV can be found in the blood of a person infected with the virus. The reuse of an HIV-contaminated needle or syringe by another drug injector (sometimes called direct syringe sharing) carries a high risk of HIV transmission because infected blood can be injected directly into the bloodstream.
Sharing drug equipment (or works) can also be a risk for spreading HIV. Infected blood can get into drug solutions by
Using blood-contaminated syringes to prepare drugs.
Reusing water.
Reusing bottle caps, spoons, or other containers (cookers) to dissolve drugs in water and to heat drug solutions.
Reusing small pieces of cotton or cigarette filters (cottons) to filter out particles that could block the needle.

“Street sellers” of syringes may repackage used syringes and sell them as sterile syringes. For this reason, people who continue to inject drugs should get syringes from reliable sources of sterile syringes, such as pharmacies or needle-exchange programs.

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